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Tohum Design Womens Crab Shell Bracelet EGCRf9TB
Tohum Design Womens Crab Shell Bracelet
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Raul Pacheco-Vega, PhD

Understanding and solving intractable resource governance problems.

One of the challenges I face when teaching my students how to write effective memos (memoranda, memorandums) is that I have developed my own method of memo-writing after reading dozens of books, book chapters, articles, and implementing some of those ideas. I’ve written so many memos that I don’t actually know whether to recommend a specific text as a guideline.

There are many benefits to learning how to write effective memos . Memo-writing allows you to really engage with the material (beyond highlighting and taking notes on the margins of your printed copies, or digital ones in PDF). Writing memoranda also Sophie Buhai Silver Faux Pearl Earrings YgMIf
. Stuck in the morning during your alloted writing time? You can read an article and write a memorandum about it = problem solved. You can Angara BasketSet Amethyst Stud Earrings in White Gold fSBKGcS6bV
(laboratory or field or computer-generated). The key element is that whatever kind of memo you write, it should be useful to you.

For those who think I only do analog stuff: I also do handwritten memos . Writing a memo can also be used as a Quick Win , and the results from the memos can be dumped into the Maha Lozi Affinity cuff bracelet Metallic xYGWAV

I recently re-read a chapter of Corbin and Straus’ classic “ Dannijo Noju Necklace YUDyez
” on memo-writing and diagrams (Chapter 6) . Corbin and Strauss’ book is one of my favorites, I read it during my PhD studies) and I have always recommended it because I think that it might be useful for students, particularly those who use qualitative methods. Re-reading the chapter really sparked my interest in writing an example and sharing how I actually do my memo-writing (even though I’m still on holidays!).

From the excerpt below you can notice that I start writing my memo with the full citation at the top , as shown in my Mendeley database. Then I usually write a contextual summary that interweaves the book or journal article or book chapter I’m memo-ing with my own research or thoughts about other authors and/or specific citations.

I then start extracting specific quotations I might want to use. One tip that I think should be useful for others is that I extract the quotation in Word EXACTLY as I would need it and insert it in an actual manuscript. That is, I link the actual citation with the Mendeley Cite-As-You-Write plug in, and do a manual edit so I can literally copy and paste. That way, the Mendeley fields will be inserted into the manuscript I’m writing, and I don’t need to manually search my Mendeley database when I write the paper.

I usually interweave quotations with text related to other authors , as though I were writing an actual manuscript. Doing this for a memo means that I can extract full paragraphs of several memoranda and assemble the literature review. I also use this technique to extract quotations that I can then dump into my Excel literature review synthesis.

Something else I do when I write a memo is that I search my Mendeley database for a specific phrase or word, or author, to see who else should I be linking to within a specific memorandum. For example, I always thought the work of Lisa Björkman could be linked to that of Malini Ranganathan, Georgina Drew, Colin McFarlane, Matthew Gandy. When I search my Mendeley database, I find several of these authors already mentioned. So, I can then draw a conceptual map of authors that links their work and I now know who else is writing about urban water infrastructure, informality and governance in Mumbai, India.

Shown in the extract below, I have written notes to myself in this memo about specific authors that I think should be engaged when writing about the work of Lisa Björkman, and how this links to my own work on informal water markets in Mexico. Since most of the time I am writing memos from memory, it is actually very useful to have my Excel dump worksheet open , as well as my Mendeley database. That way I can copy and paste quotations directly without having to worry about repeating the procedure once I have finished writing the memorandum.

I’m quite honest in the notes I write in my memoranda, so I am often wary of sharing an actual memo of mine, but I thought that even though this memo is in progress, it might be useful for other academics (and even my own students) to see how I try to write effective memorandums. I strongly recommend this technique to engage the material in greater depth. You can then upload the Word memorandum into Evernote and tag it with specific keywords, or just simply keep it stored in your Dropbox.

Hopefully sharing my memo-writing method will be useful for students, practitioners and fellow professors/instructors/educators/academic writers!

Memo-writing #AcWri David Yurman 18k Solari Pendant Necklace w/ Diamonds kQj2OM9rr

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Enhance your user access security with NoPassword AI driven Contextual and Adaptive Authentication

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NoPassword AI-driven Contextual and Adaptive Authentication

NoPassword artificial intelligence considers a wide range of contextual factors and adapts authentication process to every individual user to reduce the friction from the authentication process while it assesses the risk and manages user access based on the level of risk.

Contextual and adaptive authentication is a significant element of NoPassword Zero Trust authentication. Artificial intelligence algorithm assesses environmental, device, and user risk, and forces assigned authentication policy and adjusts the access policy accordingly.

NoPassword Artificial Intelligence

Considers a wide range of contextual factors
Adapts authentication process to every individual users
Manages user access based on the level of risk

Contextual and Adaptive Authentication Layers:

Workstation Verification

NoPassword verifies whether the workstation is a known device and has been previously used. It’s also important to ensure the user is authorized to use the workstation for accessing assigned resources. Device profiling is also performed to recognize whether the workstation based on its hardware configurations, IP address, screen resolution, language and installed fonts, etc.

Browser Verification

Given a number of vulnerabilities and threats occurs at the browser level, NoPassword also verifies the user’s browser to ensure it’s a recognized browser and also the health of the browser. Browser profiling is based on a variety of factors such as browser configuration, history, cookies, plugins, etc.

Mobile Device Verification

Given smartphones are the primary authentication device in NoPassword solution, NoPassword uses several proprietary techniques to verify the smartphone and its health. NoPassword monitors smartphone health, applications installed, key storage and key management, screen size, received signals, etc. NoPassword also extracts several token and monitor changes in connected network, surrounding signals, and device ID.

Network Connection

NoPassword monitors networks which are connected to users’ devices as a critical factor. If the user is connected via an internal trusted network of your organization, the authentication request is considered to be less risky comparing to when the user is connected to an unsecure or public network such as a coffee shop or a hotel. Changes in the network and its security must be reflected on the authentication process and level of access that the user has.

Surrounding Signals

Signals, including Wi-Fi and BLE, received by the user’s workstation and mobile device are monitored by NoPassword. Velocity and changes in these signals can reflect a change in the user’s environment, consequently changing the level of risk.


Using a wide range of technologies such as Wi-Fi, BLE, and NFC, NoPassword solution leverages proximity of user’s devices as a factor for authentication. For example, if the user’s smartphone is used as the primary method of authentication, the smartphone must be in proximity of the workstation that user tries to gain access from.


Trusted zones can be assigned so that users can securely access their account from and perform their tasks. There may be sensitive applications that must be limited to certain geo-location. There are also locations that you may prefer to limit all the access from (e.g. sanctioned countries). NoPassword allows you to define risky locations and trusted locations statically. As users use NoPassword, its Artificial Intelligence discovers new risky locations, zones, and regions and limits access.


Initially defining and later detecting risky IP addresses is another part of NoPassword contextual and adaptive authentication. New IP addresses may be authorized but limited in terms of accessing applications and performing sensitive tasks, such as online transactions. If you are receiving requests that are rejected or blocked by your users, NoPassword Artificial Intelligences learns to treat these requests with caution.


If users who normally access their account during a specific time range or for a relatively regular duration of time, and they request to access their account at an unusual point of time or for a significantly longer duration, it alerts NoPassword as a suspicious request. For instance, if a user regularly accesses a certain application during working hours, a request to access that application at 2:00am is alerted asa risky request.

Predefined Access Policies

Static authentication policies defined by the admin is a good start for contextual and adaptive Authentication. While users are normally granted access to unsensitive applications from a wider range of locations, times, and IP addresses, there might be more sensitive applications that require tighter policy. NoPassword adaptive and contextual authentication allows to limit user’s access to sensitive content and application to certain geo-location (e.g. physical office), from limited trusted IP range, and during a certain period of time.

Location Velocity

Comparing IP, GPS, and Wi-Fi location information are other factors that are used by NoPassword contextual and adaptive authentication. Significant changes in user’s location, especially in a short period of time, can result in access denial. For instance, if a user logs into their account from their New York office, the same user must not be granted access from Los Angeles within the next 4 hours.

Identity Profile, Access, and Policy

When a user tries to access their account and their profile varies from other user’s profile structure, the user might have been created for intrusion. For example, if all users are a member of the security group and Organizational Unit, and have assigned roles, and if a user with no role or membership is detected, such a user’s access must be suspended. Another example is a user with unusual extensive privileges or entitlements which can be a risky user.

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